Kingdom - Eubacteria

Eubacteria are prokaryotic organisms (lacking a membrane-bound nucleus). They differ from the Archaebacteria in a number of ways:
  • The cells walls of Eubacteria are composted of peptidoglycan, whereas the cell walls of Archaebacteria are composed of pseudopeptidoglycan.
  • The cell membranes of Eubacteria are composed of fatty acids joined to glycerol by ester bonds, whereas the cell membranes of Archaebacteria are composed of fatty acids joined to isoprenoids by ether bonds.
Many species of Eubacteria are used commercially. For example:

Food production

  • Lactobacillus helveticus - cheese, buttermilk, Yoghurt, pickles,
  • Streptococcus thermophilus - cheese, butter, sour cream, Sourdough bread
  • Pediococcus acidilactici - cured meat and sausages
  • Leuconostoc mesenteroides - green olives
  • Acetobacter aceti - vinegar
  • Erwinia herbicola - coffee


  • Streptococcus hemolyticus - streptokinase
  • Staphylococcus aureus- hyaluronidase
  • Escherichia coli - asparaginase

Industrial chemicals

  • Amylases, proteases, amino acids, vitamins, ethanol, acetone, organic acids, perfumes - many species

Genetic engineering

  • Many bacteria have been genetically engineered to produce important products such as insulin and human growth hormone.

Biological pest control

  • Bacillus thuringiensis - used as an insecticide

Some of these Eubacteria will be examined in detail elsewhere in this website.

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