Kingdom - Fungi

Fungi are eukaryotic organisms (they possess a membrane-bound nucleus). Some are multicellular and large, for example mushrooms, or are microorganisms such as yeasts and moulds.

Many are used for important commercial applications. For example:

Direct use as food

  • Agaricus bisporus - common white, button mushroom
  • Pleurotus ostreatus - Oyster mushroom
  • Tuber melanosporum - Black truffle
  • Lentinula edodes - Shiitake mushroom

Food production

  • Penicillium roqueforti- Roquefort cheese
  • Aspergillus soyae - Soy sauce
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae. - preparation of bread dough

Alcoholic drinks production

  • Saccharomyces sp. - beer, wine, sake, brandy, whiskey, whisky, rum, vodka, tequila


  • Penicillium sp. - Penicillin antibiotic
  • Acremonium sp. - Cephalosporin antibiotic
  • Tolypocladium inflatum - Immunosuppressive drug
  • Aspergillus terreus - Statins

Industrial chemicals

  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae - Ethanol
  • Aspergillus niger - Citric acid
  • Rhizopus arhizus - Fumaric acid

Some of these Fungi will be examined in detail elsewhere in this website.

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